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Belgian Ufo on Radar

Eye witness rendering of the Roswell UFO

Are the extraterrestrials studing us?
Yes they are
Not sure
No they aren't

Extraterrestrial Pilots And Passengers
The observation of strange, human-like creatures in and about UFOs is an integral part of the entire phenomenon and this aspect can hardly be ignored simply because it is a disquieting notion. Indeed, "it may yet be discovered that humanoid cases are the key to the whole problem." (1) While observations of the humanoids are traceable well back into history, it was not until the modern era of UFOs, beginning about 1947, that people began to write extensively about their encounters. Many of them told about observing the humanoids at close range, communicating with them, establishing a personal rapport, and consorting with them for extended periods. Messages of peace from the "space brothers" and warnings about atomic bombs were typically reported. Except for limited cults that developed around the authors, this literature was generally shrugged off as completely unbelievable. It will not be neglected here.

Intense prejudice against UFO reports has prevailed for over twenty years with a vicious intensity against those involving the so-called "little green men and the "contact" cases. Under a threat of ridicule, such experiences were usually discussed only among families and friends. Whenever reported to the authorities, they received little serious attention. Most such reports were dismissed outright on the grounds that the witnesses must have been mistaken, lying, or unbalanced. Officers responsible for investigating UFO reports at each Air Force base would be reluctant to forward such silliness through channels, and those reports reaching Project Blue Book faired poorly. Some were simply discarded while others were merely tallied without investigation in categories such as "psychological." (2) "Good UFO reports continued to come in at the rate of about ten per month, but they weren't verified or investigated. Most of them were being discarded. " (3) Regrettably, a considerable amount of valuable information has been lost.

It is not intended in this chapter to debate the existence of UFO creatures. The author takes this question as settled, either permanently or tentatively. In either event, this mental attitude permits an unbiased examination of the available data; the value of the inquiry can be measured by the sense that it makes of an initially baffling subject. The data bank consists of 891 cases of landings and near-landings during the twentieth century; thirty-two cases prior to 1900 are omitted because they contain many sightings of a mysterious airship in the United States that are atypical of UFOs. Inclusion of these few reports, however, would not materially alter the following results. As found in other aspects of the UFO problem, accounts of the occupants are extremely variable. They are seldom quantitative, and almost never complete. A rational analysis of such fragmentary and unscientific data is itself a challenge. But regarding the size of the occupants, perusal of the reports clearly shows at least two distinct groups; one is diminutive while the other is apparently of normal height. Descriptive words that do not carry any connotation of size, such as "figure" and "being," must simply be ignored. Qualitative terms can be sorted and tallied; that is, average height is denoted by "man," "normal," and "human," whereas decisive shortness is denoted by "little man," "child size," and "dwarf." As the two groups are distinguished by different facial details, some cases can be assigned to the appropriate category whenever the creatures are described but their height is not mentioned. The remaining reports are either entirely silent regarding the height of the creatures or contain estimated heights, that is, some quantitative data. Should a rough statistical analysis of these data confirm the presence of two distinct size categories as previously inferred, one is justified in combining the tallies from the quantitative and qualitative cases.
The following diagram shows the frequency of estimated heights, in intervals of tenths of meters, for the 81 cases containing quantitative data. It also compares the estimates with the range of heights that is considered by anthropologists to be normal for human populations. A preponderance of small creatures below the lower limit for normal humans is obvious. Some estimates are scattered within the normal range. Still a few others indicate very tall giants. As the full-range distribution of heights gives no hint that the extremes are the rarely occurring instances within a single population, it appears that three distinct populations are represented, that is, diminutive, normal, and giant.

A population of small creatures is indicated in the diagram by the roughly bell-shaped envelope of the vertical bars. Sixty-one of the 81 cases containing quantitative data indicate dwarves. In addition, 58 other cases refer to dwarves in qualitative terms. Thus, 119 cases involve dwarves. But the total number of dwarves is much greater than 119 because they were commonly observed in pairs and sometimes in groups of  5 to 10. The most frequently occurring estimate of height was 1.0 meter, having been used 16 times in the 81 reports. Almost all the small group were estimated to be between 0.7 and 1.3 meters tall well below the lower limit for normalcy for humans. Dispersion of the data can arise from inaccuracy of the witness in estimating heights or from an actual variation in the heights of the little creatures. If all the small creatures were exactly 1 meter tall, could witnesses be as far off in their estimates as, say, 0.5or 1.5 meters? It seems very unlikely. A significant factor in the dispersion should therefore be attributed to variation in the heights of individuals in the group. An isolated estimate of 0.33 meters may be spurious. Assuming that it is, the weighted average for the diminutive group up to 1.5 meters is 1.05 meters (3 ft 5 in) or, say, 3 feet, which confirms a recent estimate. (5) As a point of reference, it is noted that the standard height of doorknobs is 3.0 feet.

A predominance of estimates of about 80 centimeters is especially interesting. Six of these sightings were reported from the vicinity of Arequipa in southern Peru and the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, all in the month of September 1965. (6) At Puno,
Peru, near Lake Titacaca, seven of these very small people were seen together, and at Pichaca, six. Other reports for this size group originated from England in June of the previous years, (7) and from Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean three years later. (8) The smallest individuals, estimated to be 0.33 meters on one occasion and 0.50 meter on another, are indeed very tiny-only 13 to 20 inches! But such heights are not altogether unreasonable. The human malady known as ateliotic or infantile dwarfism, produces very small individuals. In this type of dwarfism, the skeleton tends to remain in the infantile state with the resulting body proportions being nearly normal. The most famous ateliotic dwarf was certainly Charles Sherwood Stratton, billed as General Tom Thumb by the circus magnate, P. T. Barnum. When 18 years old, standing 2 ft 9 in tall, recently made his US debut in growth throughout his life, reaching 40 inches at the time of his death at age 51. Joseph "Count" Boruwlaski was only 25 inches tall at the age of 15. He reached his maximum growth of 39 inches at the age of 30 and lived for 97 years. The shortest adult male on record, however, was Calvin Phillips, who two years before his death at age 21 was 26.5 inches tall. A Dutch female was even smaller; Pauline Masters was only 23.2 inches tall when she died at age l9 (9) The smallest man alive today is believed to be the Hungarian circus performer, Mihaly Mezaros, who at 34 years old standing 2 ft 9 in tall, recently made his US debut in Madison Square Garden. (10) These tiny humans are, of course, very rare individuals and not indicative of a small species. However, many races of diminutive people are known.
The more common achondroplastic dwarfism displaying characteristic features known as the "bulldog syndrome," is seen in all human races and in many animal species. Notable features are a disproportionately large head and short face with bulbous forehead, broad nose, and bulging eyes. Shortened bones of the forearm and lower leg are also typical. African pygmies some times have these characteristics, the smallest race being the North Twides of the Ituri forest, their mean heights being 1.44 m for the men and 1.37 m for the women. (11) A similar sexual dimorphism in the small UFO creatures is suggested by the double-peaked histogram, with males being slightly over 1 meter and females slightly under.
Certain environmental factors favor the evolutionary reduction in sizes of all animal species. Among these are the combined effects of overcrowding, limited area of habitation, and inadequate nutrition. In areas of high temperature and high humidity, small size is an advantage because the body can maintain its thermal equilibrium more easily. The evaporative cooling by skin moisture is restricted by high humidity, and a small body has a larger ratio of surface area to volume. The agility of small bodies is also an advantage in areas where dense vegetation impedes movement. Of the numerous dwarf species, a few examples will suffice: An extinct dwarf mammoth of Santa Rosa Island, California, a dwarf deer of Japan, a dwarf chimpanzee of the Belgian Congo, and the Negrito Onge pygmies of Little Andaman Island in the Indian Ocean. It is most instructive to build a composite concept of the bodily features for this group from the 23 cases in which some description was offered. Although the available detail is distressingly limited, several features were repeatedly mentioned. Abnormally large heads were described as "big," "double-sized," "over sized," "huge," and "large." Similarly, the eyes were observed to be "bulging," "huge," and "prominent." Other comments give an impression of a generally human appearance, very thin limbs, barely noticeable mouth and nose, but large, pointed ears. Several colors of skin were mentioned, but "green" only once. From other sources it seems that the skin is wrinkled, the lips are very thin, the forehead protrudes, and long arms carry normal hands with long fingernails. (13) A few comments by the witnesses are simply incomprehensible-"short tail," "short wings," and "one eye."
The appearance of this group may be summarized as thin, human-like creatures approximately 1.0 meter tall, with abnormally large, bald heads and large, round, bulging eyes that are set wide apart. A protruding forehead with wrinkled skin adds to their ugliness. On a short face, only nostrils are evident instead of a fully developed nose. The mouth is but a horizontal slit. Ears are large and pointed. Arms and fingernails are long.
Certain aspects of this description strongly suggest that the race of little people on UFOs are pygmies displaying many of the typical characteristics of achondroplastic dwarfism. By frequent use of the word "dwarf," the witnesses have apparently been trying to convey more than just the idea of their size. They actually mean "dwarf." It is further implied that the little people did not have an independent lineage but that their environmental conditions caused them to evolve into a dwarf race from larger ancestors. Their appearance, therefore, may be a significant clue to environmental conditions in their homeland and their place in the scheme of evolution.

In addition to the population of small beings associated with UFOs, a distinctly different group can be identified. They seem to be quite human and display none of the characteristic features of the dwarves. These beings were reported in 85 instances out of the total of 217; again, their actual number is greater than 85 as they were sometimes seen in pairs and small groups. In most of the reports, witnesses were not explicit in referring to their stature; the previous diagram shows that their heights were estimated only 14 times. Estimated values cover the normal range for humans and extend beyond, both shorter and taller.
A few estimates of about 1.5 meters are troublesome as they may pertain to either the dwarves or the larger beings, and the available data in these cases do not always permit a clear distinction. The distribution of sizes among both groups may also overlap at about 1.5 meters, so that some of these estimates are for the largest dwarves whereas others are for the smallest "normals." A sharp cutoff between the heights of the two groups cannot be established.
Very tall individuals were also reported with estimated heights up to 2.5 meters, about 8 feet. While certainly abnormal for humans, such height is not unheard of. At the age of 22 years, Robert Pershing Wadlow of Alton, Illinois, was 8 ft 11.1 in. tall. Seven other males over 8 ft tall are also on record. These individuals suffered from an overactive pituitary gland. A non-pathological example, however, is Angus MacAskill. He lived in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland, from 1825 to 1863 and grew to 7-ft 9-in. (14) Average-size people are much impressed by very tall people and tend to overestimate their height. Circus giants are sometimes billed as being considerably taller than their actual height, which they are under contract not to reveal. Thus the extreme heights of this group may be somewhat exaggerated.

Not much detail is available concerning the appearance of this group. It may be that they are so completely human that nothing unusual about them attracted attention. The witness simply identified them as "normal" or "human," sometimes indicating their approximate size as "short," "medium," or "very tall." One witness might mention the hair color while another comments only about a peculiarity of the eyes. The scarcity of detail may also be attributed to a propensity of this group to wear headgear that would obscure facial details. In 18 cases witnesses reported "helmets" or the equivalent with more graphic language describing a globular shape such as "diving suit with helmet" and "fishbowl." Despite the meager data, a composite image of the group can be evoked.

Predominantly reported skin colors, arranged by shade, are: "very white," "white," "fair," "tanned," "light brown," and "brown." With the aid of a further observation that one chap seemed to be "European," the imagination is not unduly strained to suppose that the group is a white race displaying various degrees of suntan. Two odd and conflicting observations occurred. One witness reporting "reddish-orange" skin also commented upon a "strange light" seen through an open door on the UFO. And then one saw "greenish" skin on an individual who was dressed in a green uniform. Perhaps the extraneous tinges were picked up from the surroundings, as a human face takes on a purple hue when illuminated by mercury-arc lamps.
Relatively frequent mention was made of the hair, regarding both the color and styling. Most common descriptions are "long" and "blond." One witness kindly put these notions together with "fair" hair "to the shoulders." In addition, isolated reports included two men with "short white" hair and two women with "very long black" hair. Incidently, the presence of women was specifically noted on five occasions.

Three witnesses said that the eyes were "slanted," whereas numerous other comments were supplied, such as "dark," "large," "deep-set," "staring," "round" and "wide apart." In none of these instances were the witnesses confused regarding the number of eyes, namely, two; but "one eye" and "three eyes" were also reported. While these latter reports may be accurate, it seems more likely that the witnesses were misled by some kind of headgear.

Some impressions of the general appearance were "oversized head," "high forehead," and "handsome," "long face" and "youthful." Regarding noses and ears there is absolutely no information. Except, perhaps, for a creature of 1.5 meters who reportedly had no nose. As that feature is common among the dwarves and the height is in the zone of overlap, that report probably does not pertain to the present group. It may be assumed that noses and ears have no unusual features, because they elicited no comments.

While this group may be much more heterogeneous than is currently suspected, a possibly oversimplified prototype comes into focus. The group seems to be a white, Caucasian race of variable skin tone, perhaps depending upon the extent of suntan. Their heights are comparable to ordinary humans, but the range is somewhat broader, inclining to very tall individuals. Their hair is predominantly blonde and usually worn at shoulder length. Eyes have a slight oriental appearance, whereas nothing unusual is to be noted about the nosesand ears.
With the exception of a single instance, (15) occurring in Denmark in 1951, all encounters with the large humanoids in the data bank were preceded by an incident on a California desert. On November 20, 1952, a witness met a strange man face-to-face in broad daylight who was described as "completely human," "5 feet 6 inches" tall, and weighing about "135 pounds." He had a "medium-colored suntan," "extremely high forehead," and his "sandy" hair fell "to his shoulders" blowing in the wind. His eyes were "large grey-green, slightly aslant at the outer corners," nose "finely chiseled," and mouth "normal." After some friendly gesturing, drawing of diagrams in the sand, and telepathic communication, the two men walked over to a UFO hovering nearby. The stranger climbed aboard and flew away. (16) In other words, the composite picture of normal-size, UFO pilots seen on at least 83 occasions between 1952 and 1968 confirms the image of this class.

 The previous histogram indicated that on six separate occasions the UFO creatures were estimated to be 3.0 meters tall, or about 10 feet. Even allowing for some exaggeration by the witnesses, they were truly gigantic! But bear in mind that they are not a great deal taller than others who, up to 8 feet tall, seemed in every respect to be members of the "normal" population. Do these very tall people represent another race, or are they merely extreme examples of the same group?
These reports clearly belong to the UFO phenomenon, for one of the giants was seen inspecting his craft. Three others climbed out of a large UFO that blocked the highway directly in front of the witnesses' truck. A few observations concerning clothing, helmets, and boots seem to parallel the other cases. Rare comments such as "ugly," "no nose or mouth," and "one eye" are perplexing and suggest a distinctly non-human appearance. However, the data for these cases is too sketchy to conclude that the "giants" are a separate race. They must be considered as very large individuals of the so-called normal group. If this classification is correct, the concept of "normal" must certainly be broadened to encompass the full range of heights from about 5 feet to nearly 10 feet.
The possibility of a racial distinction within this group intrudes here but it should be considered as improbable. The vast majority have been described as completely human whereas the occasional references to grotesque features seems to apply to all sizes. Thus two races may be represented within this range of heights that are distinguishable by their appearance, that is, normal versus beings with bizarre facial features.
As a minimum, the evidence clearly indicates two distinct races inhabiting UFOs, namely, the dwarves and normal humans that are sometimes very tall. One wonders whether these two races are traveling independently about the earth, whether they are aware of each other, and if so, whether their relationship is friendly, indifferent, or hostile. A shopkeeper in Argentina, who was prone to unusual experiences, reported that he had entered a UFO in which he saw four crew members "less than one meter in height"; a "fifth member was a blond man almost two meters in height." Some college students in Mexico City claimed that a tall man with "fair hair and blue eyes" invited them aboard a UFO. After a three-hour flight they reached a space station that was occupied by many "beings who differed greatly among themselves as to size and appearance." The beings were allegedly from various planets. Another UFO occupant over 6 ft tall reportedly told a Brazilian author that "there were not only tall races" in his homeland "but also races of medium-size like earth people, and small races, but also races with white, red, and black pigmentation....(17)

The races certainly seem to be on speaking terms. Despite the conflict concerning origins in the above reports, the most natural supposition is that they come from the same place and are cooperating in their ventures.
With so many people encountering the UFO races at close range, it would be surprising if someone had not overheard them conversing amongst themselves, or even addressing the witness. Such is indeed the case. The record indicates at least 26 occasions when the speech of the dwarves was heard. Usually the witness could not understand their language.
Developing some further insight into this situation presents some difficulty, for 16 instances involving unintelligible language occurred in several countries, namely, United States (2), France (7), Brazil (1), Great Britian (1), Canada (1), and Italy (4). In any of these instances, the dwarf speaking a language other than that native in the country would not normally be understood. Hence these data do not require that the dwarves have their own separate languages, as they might well be speaking French in Brazil or Chinese in West Virginia. A race like the dwarves, however, presumably isolated from the main stream of humanity for some time, would be expected to develop and use a unique language. Some hint of this circumstance is provided by the following descriptions of the language used by the dwarves, even though not understood by the witnesses.
  Description Case Country
pointed, childlike voices 46 Canada
grunting like pigs 137 France
inhuman 147 France
gutteral sounds 331 Italy
chattering 434 U.S.A
strange tones (as if from a pipe) 617 U.S.A
shrill sounds similar to a gargle 650 France strange, musical dialect 855 France
These descriptions do not suggest that the dwarves were merely speaking an ordinary language that was unfamiliar to the witnesses, as attested by "strange" and "inhuman." "Child- like" and "shrill" denote a high-pitched voice befitting small beings, while "like pigs," "guttural," and "gargle" denote a harsh quality of sounds produced in the throat. The language of the dwarves is probably unique and unintelligible in any country.
In any event, at least one word used by the dwarves can be identified and defined. One dwarf communicated, presumably by gesture, that his craft was called a "sil." (18) Another one could not get through to an Italian with something like "Dbano da skigyay o dbano," but he may have been merely asking directions to the nearest bathroom. (19)

The dwarves are unimpressive as linguists, but a few have spoken to the witnesses in their native tongues, using: Spanish in Argentina, Venezuela, and Mexico; English in Nebraska, New York, South Carolina, New Jersey, and California; and Italian, naturally in Italy. As might be expected, the language skills varied considerably among the individual dwarves. Their English was variously described as "broken," "very smooth," and "perfect." Similarly, Spanish on one occasion was spoken "slowly and with difficulty," whereas a more fluent colleague was rated "perfect." A dwarf speaking Spanish in Mexico strung "the words together in a strange accent." It seems fairly clear that English and Spanish are secondary languages of the dwarves, which they have learned and are in the process of improving.

If any intelligible messages came through to a witness in his own language he should be eager to tell what the dwarf had said. After such an unusual tete-a-tete, most of them are. Statements attributed to the dwarves are that they are "from space," they would "meet again" with the witness, they are "peaceful peo ple," and have "philanthropic and scientific purposes." These messages, taken together, seem to be quite reasonable. The dwarves seem to carry on normal conversations among themselves and sometimes talk to the witnesses in an incomprehensible language. This language seems unique to the dwarves and consists of guttural sounds of high pitch. Some of them apparently have mastered to various degrees the more common languages, such as, English, Spanish, and Italian. Perhaps they are also learning French, Russian, and the Oriental languages but the evidence is not available.
The normal, human types aboard UFOs display somewhat greater linguistic ability than the dwarves, as indicated in 30 instances involving languages and other communication. They were incomprehensible to witnesses in only 12 cases - an impressive performance, indeed, considering the range of countries in which they landed and spoke. Cases occurred in Italy, United States, Wales, New Zealand, Peru, Great Britian, Japan, Brazil, Portugal, Argentina, and Azores. When witnesses did not recognize the language used by the visitors, they very commonly attempted to describe it. A 12-year-old boy in Tennessee thought it sounded "like German," although it is not reported how familiar he was with that language. Also, one should bear in mind that it might have been German or nearly anything other than English. Two independent descriptions of the language of this group, "shrill" and "metallic," are reminiscent of the sound of the language used by the dwarves. Perhaps they are one and the same. This supposition is nurtured by the apparent cooperation of the two races.
A foreign-looking woman appeared at the door of a sanatorium in Brazil holding "a mug and a glass bottle covered with beautiful engravings." She uttered something like "Rempaua." The containers were filled with water and returned to her. With apparent satisfaction, the strange woman departed and boarded a UFO that took off. (20) If the word spoken by the woman cannot be identified in earthly language, it might belong to her native tongue. In another Brazilian incident, a survey worker and his associates saw a great disc landing. After his friends had fled, the witness encountered three strange-looking and oddly dressed creatures that were 7 ft tall. With a stick, one of them made seven holes in the ground surrounding a larger hole. The center hole was called "Alamo" and the most distant hole, "Orque." The Sun and Uranus, respectively, have been proposed as the meanings of these words. (21) While the opportunities to make such inferences are extremely rare, considerable progress has been
made in compiling a lexicon of the language used by the UFO people. The larger races appear to be more successful in communicating in the languages of the witnesses. Individuals of this group have used the following languages in appropriate countries:
Italian, English, Portugese, French, and Spanish. Their messages in the composite seem similar to those reported for the dwarves. Familiar expressions included "peaceful purposes," "we will return," "from space," and "carrying out a mission on earth." Witnesses were sometimes invited aboard the UFO, or warned not to touch it. One invitation was accompanied by a threat. (23) Less sinister discussions involved general questions about the witness and inquiries concerning directions and location. While allegedly on board a giant UFO, a Mexican student was told in Spanish that the UFO races knew 700 earth languages. (24) Not withstanding this boast, two of the visitors seemed ill-prepared to land their vehicle on the southern coast of Brazil. Sitting nearby was a lawyer, who was also a Professor of Law and obviously an accomplished linguist. He asked the two strangers where they came from "in Portugese, Italian, Spanish, French, and English," but elicited no verbal response. This same professor, however, perceived a telepathic invitation to board the craft and he did. After a pleasant flight lasting 30 to 40 minutes, he was returned to the place where he had been picked up. Such telepathy - the reception of a message in the brain without benefit of a spoken language- is rather commonly reported. An extended, two-way communication by this method was reported in 1952 (26)  Sometimes an unintelligible language is involved but the message still comes through. In Brazil in 1954,  for example, a witness saw "two men of slim build, normal height, their faces brownish, wearing no helmets." One was collecting samples of grass and the other was inside a machine shaped like a football about the size of a Volkswagen. He could not understand what they said, but he knew that they wanted some ammonia. (27) One of four teachers in a car-stopping incident in France perceived the word "Zemu" repeated twice. (28) In one
spooky case, an apparition in a woman's house moved his lips, but nothing was heard. The woman, however, understood that the visitor was from space and was searching for titanium under the oceans. While information concerning the languages and communication of the normal-looking UFO people is quite sketchy, a few points seem to be reasonably clear. They seem to have a unique, unearthly language that is used mostly in talking to one another. This language is. probably the same as that used by their smaller friends. Both groups sometimes converse with witnesses in several of the familiar earth languages. They usually say that they mean no harm, are from space, and are conducting investigations on earth. Frequent invitations to board their craft are issued, but they are sometimes accompanied by a sinister implication or an actual threat. A message is occasionally conveyed, even though the language is not understood by the witness, or even if no language is used at all.

Some information about the clothing of the UFO people is usually reported. The amount of detail may vary greatly among the reports, depending upon the distance from the beings, the duration of the sightings, and lighting conditions, and the extent to which the attention of the witness may have been drawn to other aspects of a spectacular event. The individual's power of observation and level of interest in clothing certainly influenced the content of his report. At any rate, enough observations have been recorded to develop a composite and fairly clear concept of the clothing of the UFO people, including some interesting details about accessories such as belts, headgear, boots, and gloves.
Among the 447 close encounters during the decade from November 1958 to November 1968, 123 instances involved sightings of human-like creatures. (30) When the distance was too great or the light too dim, the witnesses could only indefinitely describe "man," "figures," or "little boys." Such sightings without detail occurred about 50% of the time. It is in the remaining 50%, comprising 63 instances, that some specific data is to be found.

Body Covering Witnesses almost always refer to the clothing of the UFO people as "coveralls," that is, a one-piece garment with long sleeves and pant legs. Other terms such as "diver's suit" and "like a pilot" help to clarify the idea. The fit seems to vary from skin-tight to comfortably loose. A wide range of observed colors includes gray, white, black, gold, blue, silver, red and "luminous." On several occasions the surface texture was seen to be "shiny." A suit appeared to be transparent to one witness, but he supplied no further details. These garments were obviously uniforms, as the UFO people, when seen in groups, nearly always dressed alike. No distinction can be discerned in the reports between the clothing of the dwarves and the larger people.
On  rare occasions, more casual attire was noted. In the presence of a companion in the common coverall one dwarf wore a "gray shirt and brown trousers." (31) Three dwarves were all seen wearing "purple jerseys and white shirts." (32) A salesman in West Virginia stopped his car close to a large UFO hovering above the roadway directly ahead. A man of dark complexion came out wearing "a shirt and ordinary trousers, both a shiny blue color . ..(33) A rather small man looked positively natty when he climbed out of his craft in Wisconsin wearing "a black, turtle-neck pullover with a white band at the belt, and black trousers with a vertical white band along the side." Not once were any pockets, seams, buttons, or zippers mentioned. On the contrary, when a witness had an opportunity to see such details, he sometimes pointedly reported their absence. A witness in South Africa, who peered at the pilot of a landed UFO through a port hole, said that "he wore a sky-blue, one-piece coverall with no visible buttons or fasteners." (35) Similarly, no seams could be detected by a farmer in New York while talking to two dwarves at a distance of only 5 feet, and he mentioned it. (36)  It seems clear that the "coveralls" do not have pockets, seams, buttons, or the like.
Belts Wide belts are a popular accessory to the standard, one-piece uniform, but certain strange features suggest purposes other than securing the trousers, a function that would be superfluous for a one-piece garment. An Italian observer met two men near a dazzling UFO, with belts emitting intermittent yellow-green-blue light. (37) Four months later, the same man again saw two more figures with luminous belts, but the light was so bright he could not make out any other detail. (38) A utilitarian aspect of the belts was demonstrated in Venezuela by two beings about 2 meters tall. Their belts emitted light rays and they refrained from touching anything without first illuminating it with these beams. (39) It is possible that they were merely using the beams as a flashlight; however, the following episode from Mexico indicates something entirely different.
A taxicab broke down on a main highway one rainy evening in 1953 and the driver could not repair it. He sat in the vehicle all night talking with two strangers who were wearing wide, shiny, perforated belts. At first, the driver thought that the strangers were pilots from some other Latin American country, but one of them told him in Spanish that they came from a far distant planet. At dawn, all three walked to a craft about one-half kilometer across swampy terrain. The witness sank deep into mud but the legs and feet of the strangers remained clean. He explained that "When their feet touched the muddy pools their belts glowed and the mud sprang away as if repelled by some invisible force.'' (40) The strangers were also wearing metal collars around their necks and small, black, shiny boxes on their backs. As these latter two items are very rarely reported, they are probably associated with the belts and with this unusual incident. Had the invisible force been applied with more intensity, the strangers undoubtedly would have risen completely off the ground. In other words, the belts are probably part of a system that acted against gravity to keep their wearers from sinking and that simultaneously scattered the mud. One suspects, however, that the primary purpose of the system is to furnish propulsion for flying in a way comparable to a rocket system that American soldiers wear on their backs. While flying is not the most popular method used by the UFO people in getting around, they have been observed on many occasions to hover, or to zoom through the air in a most perplexing way. Specific examples are cited in the section on Personal Locomotion.
It may be worthwile at this juncture to compare the composite view of clothing developed above with that attributed to a UFO pilot some years previously.
"His clothing was a one-piece garment which I had a feeling was a uniform worn by space men as they travel, l    liek Earth men in various types of work-wear uniforms to indicate their occupations.
"Its colour was chocolate brown and it was made with a rather full blouse, close-fitting high collar much like a turtle neck, only it did not turn down. The sleeves were long, slightly full and similar to a Raglan sleeve, with closefitting bands around the wrists.
"A band about eight inches in width circled his waist. And the only break in colouring of the entire garment was a strip about an inch and a half in width at the top and bottom of this waistband. This was brighter and more of a golden brown.
"The trousers were rather full and held in at the ankles with bands like those on the sleeves at the wrists, in style much like a ski pant.
"Actually it is very difficult to describe this garment in colouring for I know of no descriptive word in our language that would suit it perfectly.
"It was definitely, a woven material, very fine, and the weave was different from any of our materials. There was a sheen about the whole garment, but I could not tell whether or not this was due to a finishing process or whether it might be the kind of substance of which its thread was made. It was not like our satin, silk, or
rayon, for it had more of a radiance than a sheen.
"I saw no zippers, buttons, buckles, fasteners or pockets of any kind, nor did I notice seams as our garments show. It is still a mystery to me how his garment was made." (41)
 It is rather common for the UFO people to be seen wearing helmets. In Wisconsin, a man stepped out of an elevator suspended beneath a UFO "with something like a glass fishbowl on his head." (42)Other observations confirm the general features of this accessory "glass headgear," (43) "diving helmet," (44) and "helmet with a glass section in front of the face." (45) It seems clear that these helmets are not intended merely to protect against mechanical damage. Some details noticed by a witness in Argentina strongly imply that the helmet was worn to isolate the owner from the atmosphere. A typical dwarf came out of a large, egg- shaped object wearing a helmet that was linked to the object by three cables. (46) This arrangement sounds very much like umbilical connections between a space suit and a life-support system, a concept that was not prevalent in Argentina at the time of this sighting in 1965. One cannot escape concluding that these individuals could not breathe the earth's atmosphere, or that they chose not to. No such restriction applies generally to the UFO people, however, because neither helmets nor other breathing equipment were seen in the majority of the sightings. Most of the UFO people of both races appear to be perfectly comfortable breathing
the air. This dilemma demands a set of circumstances consistent with the observations about wearing helmets; that is, some do, some don't.
The most significant aspect of this data is that large numbers of the UFO people can and do breathe the air. There can be no doubt that their biological system is based upon metabolism of oxygen, since no other atmospheric gas can serve this function. Their life energy must depend upon consumption of oxygen obtained through breathing combined with the chemical degradation of foods, in the manner of humans. Furthermore, the atmosphere that they are accustomed to breathing must contain oxygen, and the amount cannot be greatly different than on earth.
To pursue this inquiry further requires some technical details about gas mixtures and respiration. The oxygen content of air is about 21% based upon dry volume, and that proportion remains nearly constant at all altitudes up to about 25 miles. But the proportion of oxygen is not directly related to breathing. Man lives comfortably at sea level, but he cannot survive above 25,000 ft without supplemental oxygen. The molecular concentration of oxygen, or the pressure exerted by oxygen alone, at the higher altitudes becomes insufficient to transfer oxygen to the blood in the lungs. The important parameter that indicates the suitability for breathing is the partial pressure of oxygen. At sea level it is 159mm Hg. The minimum viable value for man is about 69 mm Hg. But there is no upper limit; man can breathe pure oxygen.
Although the UFO people have been seen wearing helmets that suggest a special gas mixture for respiration, there is no need to assume that they were compelled to do so. As pilots of craft that fly to extreme altitudes, they might habitually wear helmets and, in a few landings, merely fail to take them off. Simply seeing the helmets does not necessarily mean that the UFO people would be uncomfortable or possibly imperiled by breathing air. They could be accustomed to an atmosphere that is identical or very similar to that on earth. But many other explanations are possible.
Let it be supposed that the helmets are intended to supply a special mixture of gases and, for the moment, explore the implications concerning only one gas, oxygen. If the partial pressure of oxygen that these people customarily breathe were less than on earth and their range of oxygen tolerance were comparable to man, then they should not have any difficulty in breathing ordinary air, relatively rich in oxygen for them, and helmets should not be required. On the other hand, if the partial pressure of oxygen in their native atmosphere were greater, than on earth, a distinct need for the helmets might arise. The difference would have to be substantial, say, by a factor of two or three times greater, before they would experience difficulty. Being acclimated to an oxygen-rich atmosphere, they would find the oxygen-poor atmosphere on earth to be troublesome. Helmets would be in order for extended exploration outside the craft; however, shorter excursions might be undertaken without them. In time, they might become adjusted to the earth's atmosphere and no longer need the helmets. For their native atmosphere to have a partial pressure of oxygen vastly greater than on earth is out of the question because they would then never be seen sans helmets. It appears that a native atmosphere containing oxygen at a partial pressure somewhat higher than on earth is at least compatible with the observations.
Unfortunately, this line of inquiry conflicts with another forceful implication of the data. As the dwarves are sometimes reported to have abnormally large chests, (47) they may have adapted to low concentrations of oxygen in their homeland as have the South American Indians who live in the Andean highlands. (48) It may be worth noting that this adaptation in South America has occurred in a short period of time compared to the millions of years usually associated with evolutionary changes. The penetration of homo sapiens into the Western hemisphere was initiated by Mongoloid people crossing the Bering Sea from Asia to North America about 11,500 years ago. They and their progeny spread gradually southward across the continent, reaching the northern portions of South America in a period of about 700 years, or about 10,800 years ago. (49) If a certain fraction of these people having abnormally large chests preferentially sought out the mountain habitat and others did not, eons of time may have been taken in developing the chest. It seems much more reasonable to postulate that a typical group of immigrants by chance, found the mountains to their liking and settled there. In this case, the maximum time available for the adaptation to be achieved was only 10,800 years. Even less time would have been involved if the people first saturated more favorable locations before moving into the highlands by choice or when fleeing from the victors in tribal warfare.
One wonders if the sighting reports contain any clues that would aid in estimating the total atmospheric pressure in the homeland of the UFO people. Helmets might be used as part of a space suit to prevent caisson disease, also known as the bends, if their native pressure were much lower than the atmosphere on earth. A serious medical hazard arises when a person is exposed to nitrogen under increased pressure for an extended period. The blood absorbs more nitrogen than usual and, if decompression proceeds too rapidly, the blood releases it in the form of bubbles. To avoid distressing symptoms or death, the individual must be returned to his normal pressure in slow and controlled stages, allowing the excess nitrogen in the blood to be expelled gradually by the lungs. If the UFO people were accustomed to an atmosphere in which the pressure of nitrogen were much lower than on earth, one would rarely observe them without their helmets.
On the other hand, a native pressure considerably higher than one atmosphere would also require the use of a helmet but here the question reverts back to an adequate supply of oxygen as already discussed. In summary, wearing of helmets on earth is not usually required and they may be worn more from personal preference than from necessity. The native atmosphere certainly contains oxygen but the available information is too sketchy to establish its partial pressure relative to that on earth. Neither can the total pressure be deduced. However, the partial pressure of oxygen and the total pressure cannot be greatly different from 159 mm Hg and 14.7 psi, respectively